The usability of isolated K-12 data is becoming obsolete. With that trend comes an increasing need to integrate systems to ensure comprehensive, coherent database warehousing, generate sophisticated analytics and maximize cost efficiencies. This monograph, part of the 2011 CoSN Compendium, is a primer on the technical challenges associated with integrating systems to seamlessly share data, content and services. It focuses on five key areas—content interoperability; data connectivity; data integration; identity management and portal interoperability—and presents information on current standards. The primer also outlines challenges and benefits associated with each key area and provides guidance to educators who are trying to determine if a given set of interoperability standards are worth adopting. This is a members-only publication and can only be downloaded and viewed by current members of CoSN.